Plain Weaving

The most basic and possibly the oldest type of weave construction. The warp and weft criss – cross each other at the right angle, with each weft thread passing over one warp thread then under the next warp thread.

Plain weave are sometimes referred as taffeta weaves.

Illustration of Plain Weave


Main features of plain weave :

• Threads interlacing in alternate order.
• The repeat contains two ends and two picks.
• Both sides of the weave are identical.
• Each thread gives maximum amount of support to the adjacent threads.
• Texture is stronger and firmer than any other ordinary cloth.
• Made from all kind of textile raw materials and yarns i.e. cotton, linen, jute, man-made fibres, both spun and continuous filament yarns.
• It comprises a high production of the total output of woven fabrics.
• Two heald shafts are sufficient to produce plain weave, when the number of ends/inch is large (more than 50), four or six heald shafts are used with skip draft.

Illustration of Weft and Warp Thread

Twill Weave

Has a visual diagonal line or rib effect, caused when the weft yarn crosses over and under two or more warp yarns. The diagonal yarn may also be referred to as wale.

Twill weaves are harder wearing than plain weaves of the same yarn and count, and are therefore particularly suited to utility wear. Denim is possibly the most famous of all the work wear fabrics and true denim is of twill-weave better from construction.

Twill fabrics are more pliable (Pliable means bendable but not breakable) and have a better drape. They also tend to recover better from wrinkles.

Illustration of Twill Weave

Main features of twill weave :

• Diagonal line can be seen on the faced of the fabric.
• Twill line may be from the lower lift to upper right (Z-twill) or from lower right to upper lift (S-twill) corner.
• Smaller repeat twill take at least three picks to produce twill weave.
• Three or more held shaft are required for shedding.
• Generally straight draft is used for twill weave besides this pointed.
• The twill design can be seen from both sides of fabric.
• Diagonal lines run at angle vary between (15-75) degree but in a contonuous or regular twill is 45 degree.

Twill Weave

Tapestry Weaving

Tapestry weaving is done on a vertical loom. It is sometimes called weft-faced weaving because all the warps are hidden, unlike fabric weaving where both the warps and the wefts may be visible. By only having the weft visible it is possible to create more precise design.

¨Kilims and Navajo blankets and rugs are all forms of tapestry weaving. Navajo rugs and blankets.

Tapestry Weaving

Ikat Weaving

Before weaving, the warps or wefts are dyed different colors at predetermined intervals along their length, using a form of resist or tie-dyeing process. Double ikat implies that both wefts and warps have been dyed.

If the dyed threads are warps the patterns is visible to the weaver, who can adjust them to line up each other. In some cultures the patterns will be aligned to perfection, while in others misalignment is preferred.

Double ikats are the most difficult to produce.

Jacquard Weaving

This weave process is more time consuming and labour intensive than a basic weave. However, jacquard fabric is more stable and stretchy than fabrics created through the basic weave technique.

Jacquard weaves can also be combined with various colours and types of threads. This provides beautiful and soft gradations of colour tones and bold outlined patterns that are very complex, such as landscapes, portraits, and unique designs.

The pictures of Jacquard loom

The jacquard loom enables the automatic production of an unlimited variety of designs.

Jacquard loom is designed to weave fabrics of intricate design whose control mechanism makes use of cards with holes punched in them.




Intricate design Jacquard Weaving